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Courses

Third and Fourth Degree Perineal Tears & Episiotomy : Hands-on Workshop

Sultan AH, Thakar R, Fenner D. Perineal and anal sphincter trauma. London: Springer 2007 (All topics listed below has been covered in the textbook)

Anal Endosonography

  • Bartram CI, Frudinger A. handbook of anal endosonography. Bristol, UK: Wrightson biomedical Publishing Ltd, 1997.
  • Sultan AH, Kamm MA, Hudson CN, Nicholls RJ, Bartram CI. Endosonography of the anal sphincters: normal anatomy and comparison with manometry. Clin Rad 1994;49:368-74.
  • Sultan AH, Nicholls RJ, Kamm MA, Hudson CN, Beynon J, Bartram CI. Anal endosonography and correlation with in vitro and in vivo anatomy. Br J Surg 1993;80:508-11.
  • Thakar R, Sultan AH. Anal endosonography and its role in assessing the incontinent patient. Best Practice & Research - Clinical Obstetrics and Gynaecology 2004 ; 18:157-173

Occult anal sphincter injury

  • Andrews V, Thakar R, Sultan AH, Jones PW. Occult anal sphincter injuries -- myth or reality? BJOG 2006;113:195-200.
  • Chaliha C, Sultan AH, Kalia V, Monga AK, Stanton SL. Anal function: effect of pregnancy and delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2001;185:427-32
  • Donnelly V, Fynes M, Campbell D, Johnson H, O'Connell R, O'Herlihy C. Obstetric events leading to anal sphincter damage. Obstet Gynecol 1998;92: 955-961.
  • Faltin DL, Boulvain M, Floris LA, Irion O. Diagnosis of anal sphincter tears to prevent fecal incontinence. A randomised controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol 2005;106:6-13
  • Fynes M, Donnelly V, Behan M, O'connell PR, O'Herlihy C. Effect of second vaginal delivery on anorectal physiology and faecal incontinence: a prospective study. Lancet 1999;354:983-86.
  • Sultan AH, Kamm MA, Hudson CN, Thomas JM, Bartram CI. Anal sphincter disruption during vaginal delivery. New Engl J Med 1993;329:1905-1911.
  • Sultan AH, Thakar R. Diagnosis of anal sphincter tears to prevent fecal incontinence. A randomised controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol [letter] 2005;106:1108-9
  • Norton C, Christiansen J, Butler U, Harari D, Nelson RL, Pemberton J, Price K, Rovnor E, Sultan A. Anal Incontinence. In Abrams P, Cardozo L,
  • Khoury, Wein A (eds). Incontinence 2nd ed. Plymouth: Health Publication Ltd 2002:985-1044

Neurogenic trauma to anal sphincter

  • Allen RE, Hosker GL, Smith ARB & Warrell DW. Pelvic floor damage and childbirth: a neurophysiological study. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1990; 97: 770-779
  • Snooks SJ, Swash M, Setchell M, Henry MM. Injury to innervation of pelvic floor sphincter musculature in childbirth. Lancet 1984; 2:546-50
  • Snooks SJ, Swash M, Mathers SE, Henry MM. Effect of vaginal delivery on the pelvic floor: a 5-year follow-up. Br J Surg 1990; 77:1358-60.

Episiotomy

  • Andrews V, Thakar R, Sultan AH, Jones PW. Are mediolateral episiotomies actually mediolateral? BJOG 2005;112:1156-1158
  • Eogan M, Daly L, O'Connell PR, O'Herlihy C. Does the angle of episiotomy affect the incidence of anal sphincter injury? BJOG 2006; 103:190-194.
  • Henriksen TB, Bek KM, Hedegaard M, Secher NJ Methods and consequences of changes in use of episiotomy. BMJ 1994;309: 1255-8
  • Henriksen TB, Bek KM, Hedegaard M, Secher NJ. Episiotomy and perineal lesions in spontaneous vaginal deliveries. BJOG 1992;99:950-954
  • Kettle C, Hills RK, Jones P, Darby L, Gray R, Johanson R. Continuous versus interrupted perineal repair with standard or rapidly absorbed sutures after spontaneous vaginal birth: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2002:359;2217-23
  • Sleep J, Grant A. West Berkshire perineal management trial. BMJ 1987;295:749-51.
  • Woolley RJ. Benefits and risks of episiotomy: A review of the English language literature since 1980. Obstet Gynecol Surv 1995;50:806-835.

Instrumental delivery

  • Bofill JA, Rust OA, Schorr SJ et al. A randomized prospective trial of the obstetric forceps versus the M-cup vacuum extractor. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1996;175:1325-30
  • Johanson RB, Rice C, Doyle M et al. A randomised prospective study comparing the new vacuum extractor policy with forceps delivery. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1993;100: 524- 530.
  • Johanson RB, Heycock E, Carter J, Sultan AH, Walklate K, Jones PW. Maternal and child health after assisted vaginal delivery: five-year follow up of a randomised controlled study comparing forceps and ventouse. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1999;106:5444-549.
  • Sultan AH, Johanson RB, Carter JE. Occult anal sphincter trauma following randomized forceps and vacuum delivery. Int J Gynecol Obstet 1998;61:113-119.

Prevention of perineal trauma

  • Andrews V, Sultan AH, Thakar R, Jones PW. Risk factors for obstetric anal sphincter injury: a prospective study. Birth 2006;33:117-122.
  • Carroli G, Belizan J. Episiotomy for vaginal birth. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 1999, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD000081. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000081.
  • Gupta JK, Hofmeyr GJ, Smyth R. Position in the second stage of labour for women without epidural anaesthesia. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2004, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD002006. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002006.pub2.
  • Cluett E R, Nikodem VC, McCandlish RE, Burns EE. Immersion in water in pregnancy, labour and birth. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2002, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD000111. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000111.pub2.
  • Johanson RB, Menon V. Vacuum extraction versus forceps for assisted vaginal delivery. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 1999, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD000224. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000224.
  • Labrecque M, Marcoux S, Pinault JJ, Laroche C, Martin S. Prevention of perineal trauma by perineal massage during pregnancy: a pilot study. Birth 1994; 21(1):20-25.
  • Labrecque M, Eason E, Marcoux S et al. Randomized controlled trial of prevention of perineal trauma by perineal massage during pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1999; 180(3 Pt 1):593-600.
  • Shipman MK, Boniface DR, Tefft ME, McGlohry F. Antenatal perineal massage and subsequent perineal outcomes: a randomised controlled trial. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1997; 104:787-791.
  • Labrecque M, Eason E, Marcoux S. Randomized trial of perineal massage during pregnancy: perineal symptoms three months after delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2000; 182(1 Pt 1):76-80.
  • Labrecque M, Eason E, Marcoux S. Women's views on the practice of prenatal perineal massage. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 2001; 108(5):499-504.

Anal sphincter rupture and repair

  • DeLeeuw JW, Struijk PC, Vierhout ME, Wallenburg HCS. Risk factors for third degree perineal ruptures during delivery. BJOG 2001;108:383-7
  • DeLeeuw JW, Vierhout ME, Struijk PC, Wim WCJ, Wallenburg HCS. Anal sphincter injury after vaginal delivery: functional outcome and risk factors for fecal incontinence. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2001:80:830-4.
  • Engel AF, Kamm MA, Sultan AH, Bartram CI, Nicholls RJ. Anterior anal sphincter repair in patients with obstetric trauma. Br J Surg 1994;81:1231-4.
  • Fenner DE, Becky-Genberg MPH, Brahma P, Marek L, DeLancey JOL. Fecal and urinary incontinence after vaginal delivery with anal sphincter disruption in an obstetrics unit in the United States. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2003;189:1543-50.
  • Fernando RJ, Sultan AH, Kettle C, Radley S, Jones P, O'Brien PMS. Repair techniques for obstetric anal sphincter injuries. A randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol 2006;107:1261-8.
  • Fitzpatrick M, Behan M, O'Connell R, O'Herlihy C. A randomized clinical trial comparing primary overlap with approximation repair of third degree obstetric tears. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2000;183:1220-4.
  • Gjessing H, Backe B, Sahlin Y. Third degree obstetric tears; outcome after primary repair. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1998;77:736-40.
  • Jorge JMN, Wexner SD. Etiology and management of fecal incontinence. Dis Colon Rectum 1993;36: 77-97.
  • Malouf AJ, Norton CS, Engel AF, Nicholls RJ, Kamm MA. Long term results of overlapping anterior anal-sphincter repair for obstetric trauma. Lancet 2000;355: 260-65
  • Poen AC, Felt-Bersma RJF, Strijers RLM, Dekkers GA, Cuesta MA, Meuwissen SGM. Third-degree obstetric perineal tear: long-term clinical and functional results after primary repair. Br J Surg 1998;85:1433-38.
  • Pirhonen JP, Grenman SE, Haadem K, Gudmundsson S, Lindqvist P, Sihola S, Erkkola RU, Marsal K. Frequency of anal sphincter rupture at delivery in Sweden and Finland - result of difference in manual help to the baby's head. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1998;77:974-77
  • Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Management of Third and Fourth Degree Perineal Tears Following Vaginal Delivery. London: RCOG Press: 2001. RCOG Guideline No. 29.
  • Sangali MR, Floris L, Faltin D, Weil A. Anal incontinence in women with third or fourth degree perineal tears and subsequent vaginal deliveries. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 2000;40:244-248
  • Sultan AH, Kamm MA, Hudson CN, Bartram CI. Third degree obstetric anal sphincter tears: risk factors and outcome of primary repair. BMJ 1994;308:887-891.
  • Sultan AH, Monga AK, Kumar D, Stanton SL. Primary repair of obstetric anal sphincter rupture using the overlap technique. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1999;106:318-323.
  • Sultan AH, Thakar R. Lower genital tract and anal sphincter trauma. Best Practice & Research - Clinical Obstetrics and Gynaecology 2002;16(1):99-116
  • Sultan AH. Third degree tear repair. In: MacClean AB, Cardozo L (eds) Incontinence in women. London: RCOG Press; 2002: Pages 379-90
  • Thakar R, Sultan AH. Management of obstetric anal sphincter injury. The Obstetrician and Gynaecologist. 2003; 5(2):31-39
  • Williams Adams EJ, Tincello DG, Alfirevic Z, Walkinshaw SA, Richmond DH. How to repair an anal sphincter injury after vaginal delivery: results of a randomized controlled trial. BJOG 2006;201-7 vFernando R, Sultan A, Kettle C, Thakar , Radley S.

Methods of repair for obstetric anal sphincter injury. Cochrane
Systematic Reviews 2006 July 19;3:CD002866

Anal Incontinence

  • Chaliha C, Kalia V, Stanton SL, Monga A, Sultan AH. Antenatal prediction of postpartum urinary and fecal incontinence. Obstetrics and Gynecology 1999;94:689-94
  • Cook IA, McC Mortensen NJ. Management of faecal incontinence following obstetric injury. Br J Surg 1998;85:293-99 Kamm MA. Obstetric damage and faecal incontinence. Lancet 1994;344:730-33.
  • Norton C, Kamm MA. Outcome of biofeedback for faecal incontinence. Br J Surg 1999;86:1159-63.
  • Norton C, Gibbs A, Kamm MA. Randomized, controlled trial of anal electrical stimulation for fecal incontinence Dis Colon Rectum 2005; 49:190-96
  • Norton C, Christiansen J, Butler U, Harari D, Nelson RL, Pemberton J, Price K, Rovnor E, Sultan A. Anal Incontinence. In Abrams P, Cardozo L, Khoury, Wein A (eds). Incontinence 2nd ed. Plymouth: Health Publication Ltd 2002:985-1044
  • Sultan AH. Anal incontinence after childbirth. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 1997;9:320-324.
  • Sultan AH, Nugent K. Pathophysiology and non-surgical treatment of anal incontinence. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 2004;111 (Supp 1): 84-90

Subsequent delivery

  • Fernando R. Sultan AH. Risk factors and management of obstetric perineal injury. Curr Obstet Gynaecol 2004; 14: 320-326
  • Harkin R, Fitzpatrick M, O'Connell PR, O'Herlihy C. Anal sphincter disruption at vaginal delivery: is recurrence predictable? Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2003;109:149-52
  • Peleg D, Kennedy CM, Merrill D, Zlatnik FJ. Risk of repetition of severe perineal laceration. Obstet Gynecol 1999;93:1021-4.
  • Payne TN, Carey JC, Rayburn WF. Prior third- or fourth-degree perineal tears and recurrence risks. Int J Gynecol Obstet 1999;64:55-57
  • Sultan AH, Monga AK. Anal and urinary incontinence in women with obstetric anal sphincter rupture. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1997;104: 753-4
  • Tetzschner T, Sorensen M, Lose G, Christiansen J. Anal and urinary incontinence in women with obstetric anal sphincter rupture. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1996;103:1034-1040.
  • Scheer I, Thakar R, Sultan AH. Should women who sustained obstetric anal sphincter injuries be allowed a vaginal delivery. Neurourol Urodynam 2006:25:512-513

Caesarean Section

  • Hall MH, Bewley S. Maternal mortality and mode of delivery. Lancet 1999;354:776
  • Clarke SL, Koonings PP, Phelan JP. Placenta praevia,/accreta and prior cesarean section. Obstet Gynecol 1985;89:89-92.
  • Sultan AH, Stanton SL. Preserving the pelvic floor and perineum during childbirth-elective caesarean section? BJOG1996;103:731-34.

Medicolegal

  • Eddy A. Litigating and quantifying maternal damage following childbirth. Clin Risk 1999;5 (5):178-180.
  • Sultan AH. Editorial: Obstetric perineal injury and anal incontinence. Clin Risk 1999;5 (5):193-6.

Training

  • Andrews V, Thakar R, Sultan AH, Kettle C. Can hands-on perineal repair courses affect clinical practice. Br J Midwifery 2005;13(9).
  • Fernando RJ, Sultan AH, Radley S, Jones PW, Johanson RB. Management of obstetric anal sphincter injury: A systematic review and national practice survey. BMC Health Services Research 2002,2:
  • Groom KM, Paterson-Brown S. Can we improve on the diagnosis of third degree tears? Europ J Obstet Gynecol Rep Biol 2002;101:19-21
  • McLennan MT, Melick CF, Clancy SL, Artal R. Episiotomy and perineal repair. An evaluation of resident education and experience. J Reprod Med 2002;47(12):1025-30.
  • Sultan AH, Kamm MA, Hudson CN. Obstetric perineal tears: an audit of training. J Obstet Gynaecol 1995;15:19-23.
  • Thakar R, Sultan AH, Fernando R, Monga A, Stanton S. Can workshops on obstetric anal sphincter rupture change practice? Int Urogynecol J 2001;12(3):S5.